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When: The Scientific Secrets of Perfect Timing (English Edition) Kindle电子书
#1 Wall Street Journal Business Bestseller
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"Brims with a surprising amount of insight and practical advice." --The Wall Street Journal
Daniel H. Pink, the #1 bestselling author of Drive and To Sell Is Human, unlocks the scientific secrets to good timing to help you flourish at work, at school, and at home.
Everyone knows that timing is everything. But we don't know much about timing itself. Our lives are a never-ending stream of "when" decisions: when to start a business, schedule a class, get serious about a person. Yet we make those decisions based on intuition and guesswork.
Timing, it's often assumed, is an art. In When: The Scientific Secrets of Perfect Timing, Pink shows that timing is really a science.
Drawing on a rich trove of research from psychology, biology, and economics, Pink reveals how best to live, work, and succeed. How can we use the hidden patterns of the day to build the ideal schedule? Why do certain breaks dramatically improve student test scores? How can we turn a stumbling beginning into a fresh start? Why should we avoid going to the hospital in the afternoon? Why is singing in time with other people as good for you as exercise? And what is the ideal time to quit a job, switch careers, or get married?
In When, Pink distills cutting-edge research and data on timing and synthesizes them into a fascinating, readable narrative packed with irresistible stories and practical takeaways that give readers compelling insights into how we can live richer, more engaged lives.
“Known for his popular books on motivation and creativity, Pink tackles the science behind how we organize our time and how we should set up the routines of our days.” —Washington Post, 11 Leadership Books to Read in 2018
“[Pink] unpicks compelling patterns... And he includes handy ‘time-hacking’ advice on how to put the insights divulged into practice.” —Nature
“Daniel Pink is one of the few non-fiction authors alive today capable of filtering the work of so many scientific minds through his original human stories and onto the page. He is doggedly diligent in his academic research yet his examples are accessible... Like a long walk with a good, funny, wise friend in a leafy park, reading this book is time well spent.” —Harper's Bazaar
“The breadth of the book's scope is impressive... Pink makes a point to end each chapter with takeaway points that readers can apply to their own lives. When is engaging, conversational and tightly edited, making it an easy yet important read.” —Associated Press
“When contains a cornucopia of compelling information and insights.” —Philadelphia Inquirer
“Helpful tips and insightful solutions.” —Forbes
“Pink should change many people's understanding of timing with this book, which provides insights from little-known scientific studies in an accessible way... By the book's end, readers will be thinking much more carefully about how they divide up theirs days and organize their routines.” —Publishers Weekly
“Consistently applying the principles laid out in the book could have dramatic impacts on one’s life and on society.” —Washington Post
“Solid science backed by sensible action points.” —Kirkus
“Helpful, inspiring and thoughtful advice.” —Booklist
“[When] reveals that timing really is everything... This marriage of research, stories and practical application is vintage Pink, helping us use science to improve our everyday lives.” —BookPage
“Minutes are precious—and easier than ever to waste. Daniel H. Pink’s deeply researched but never boring study could be a turning point. College students and business managers alike may find new ways to organize their schedules and ease difficult decisions by using the 'hidden pattern' of time to their advantage.” —The Wall Street Journal
“A new thought-provoking book about time and timing.” —Northwest Arkansas Democrat Gazette
“[Pink’s] latest book, When, draws on research from psychology, biology and economics to explore how timing impacts every aspect of our lives.” —EdSurge
“In this amazingly actionable and equally enthralling book, Dan tackles all the big timing questions.” —LinkedIn
Praise for Daniel H. Pink and his books:
“Provocative.” —Malcolm Gladwell
“Compelling.” —The Washington Post
“Like discovering your favorite professor in a box.” —Publishers Weekly
“A frothy blend of utility and entertainment.” —Bloomberg
“Convincing.” —Scientific American
“Radical, surprising, and undeniably true.” —Forbes
“Audacious and powerful.” —The Miami Herald
“Right on the money.” —US News & World Report --此文字指其他 kindle_edition 版本。
The Hidden Pattern of Everyday Life
What men daily do, not knowing what they do!
—William Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing
If you want to measure the world’s emotional state, to find a mood ring large enough to encircle the globe, you could do worse than Twitter. Nearly one billion human beings have accounts, and they post roughly 6,000 tweets every second. The sheer volume of these minimessages—what people say and how they say it—has produced an ocean of data that social scientists can swim through to understand human behavior.
A few years ago, two Cornell University sociologists, Michael Macy and Scott Golder, studied more than 500 million tweets that 2.4 million users in eighty-four countries posted over a two-year period. They hoped to use this trove to measure people’s emotions—in particular, how “positive affect” (emotions such as enthusiasm, confidence, and alertness) and “negative affect” (emotions such as anger, lethargy, and guilt) varied over time. The researchers didn’t read those half a billion tweets one by one, of course. Instead, they fed the posts into a powerful and widely used computerized text-analysis program called LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count) that evaluated each word for the emotion it conveyed.
What Macy and Golder found, and published in the eminent journal Science, was a remarkably consistent pattern across people’s waking hours. Positive affect—language revealing that tweeters felt active, engaged, and hopeful—generally rose in the morning, plummeted in the afternoon, and climbed back up again in the early evening. Whether a tweeter was North American or Asian, Muslim or atheist, black or white or brown, didn’t matter. “The temporal affective pattern is similarly shaped across disparate cultures and geographic locations,” they write. Nor did it matter whether people were tweeting on a Monday or a Thursday. Each weekday was basically the same. Weekend results differed slightly. Positive affect was generally a bit higher on Saturdays and Sundays—and the morning peak began about two hours later than on weekdays—but the overall shape stayed the same. Whether measured in a large, diverse country like the United States or a smaller, more homogenous country like the United Arab Emirates, the daily pattern remained weirdly similar.
Across continents and time zones, as predictable as the ocean tides, was the same daily oscillation—a peak, a trough, and a rebound. Beneath the surface of our everyday life is a hidden pattern: crucial, unexpected, and revealing.
Understanding this pattern—where it comes from and what it means—begins with a potted plant, a Mimosa pudica, to be exact, that perched on the windowsill of an office in eighteenth-century France. Both the office and the plant belonged to Jean-Jacques d’Ortous de Mairan, a prominent astronomer of his time. Early one summer evening in 1729, de Mairan sat at his desk doing what both eighteenth-century French astronomers and twenty-first-century American writers do when they have serious work to complete: He was staring out the window. As twilight approached, de Mairan noticed that the leaves of the plant sitting on his windowsill had closed up. Earlier in the day, when sunlight streamed through the window, the leaves were spread open. This pattern—leaves unfurled during the sunny morning and furled as darkness loomed—spurred questions. How did the plant sense its surroundings? And what would happen if that pattern of light and dark was disrupted?
So in what would become an act of historically productive procrastination, de Mairan removed the plant from the windowsill, stuck it in a cabinet, and shut the door to seal off light. The following morning, he opened the cabinet to check on the plant and—mon Dieu!—the leaves had unfurled despite being in complete darkness. He continued his investigation for a few more weeks, draping black curtains over his windows to prevent even a sliver of light from penetrating the office. The pattern remained. The Mimosa pudica’s leaves opened in the morning, closed in the evening. The plant wasn’t reacting to external light. It was abiding by its own internal clock.
Since de Mairan’s discovery nearly three centuries ago, scientists have established that nearly all living things—from single-cell organisms that lurk in ponds to multicellular organisms that drive minivans—have biological clocks. These internal timekeepers play an essential role in proper functioning. They govern a collection of what are called circadian rhythms (from the Latin circa [around] and diem [day]) that set the daily backbeat of every creature’s life. (Indeed, from de Mairan’s potted plant eventually bloomed an entirely new science of biological rhythms known as chronobiology.)
For you and me, the biological Big Ben is the suprachiasmatic nucleus, or SCN, a cluster of some 20,000 cells the size of a grain of rice in the hypothalamus, which sits in the lower center of the brain. The SCN controls the rise and fall of our body temperature, regulates our hormones, and helps us fall asleep at night and awaken in the morning. The SCN’s daily timer runs a bit longer than it takes for the Earth to make one full rotation—about twenty-four hours and eleven minutes. So our built-in clock uses social cues (office schedules and bus timetables) and environmental signals (sunrise and sunset) to make small adjustments that bring the internal and external cycles more or less in synch, a process called “entrainment.”
The result is that, like the plant on de Mairan’s windowsill, human beings metaphorically “open” and “close” at regular times during each day. The patterns aren’t identical for every person—just as my blood pressure and pulse aren’t exactly the same as yours or even the same as mine were twenty years ago or will be twenty years hence. But the broad contours are remarkably similar. And where they’re not, they differ in predictable ways.
Chronobiologists and other researchers began by examining physiological functions such as melatonin production and metabolic response, but the work has now widened to include emotions and behavior. Their research is unlocking some surprising time-based patterns in how we feel and how we perform—which, in turn, yields guidance on how we can configure our own daily lives.
Mood Swings and Stock Swings
For all their volume, hundreds of millions of tweets cannot provide a perfect window into our daily souls. While other studies using Twitter to measure mood have found much the same patterns that Macy and Golder discovered, both the medium and the methodology have limits. People often use social media to present an ideal face to the world that might mask their true, and perhaps less ideal, emotions. In addition, the industrial-strength analytic tools necessary to interpret so much data can’t always detect irony, sarcasm, and other subtle human tricks.
Fortunately, behavioral scientists have other methods to understand what we are thinking and feeling, and one is especially good for charting hour-to-hour changes in how we feel. It’s called the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM), the creation of a quintet of researchers that included Daniel Kahneman, winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics, and Alan Krueger, who served as chairman of the White House Council of Economic Advisers under Barack Obama. With the DRM, participants reconstruct the previous day—chronicling everything they did and how they felt while doing it. DRM research, for instance, has shown that during any given day people typically are least happy while commuting and most happy while canoodling.
In 2006, Kahneman, Krueger, and crew enlisted the DRM to measure “a quality of affect that is often overlooked: its rhythmicity over the course of a day.” They asked more than nine hundred American women—a mix of races, ages, household incomes, and education levels—to think about the previous “day as a continuous series of scenes or episodes in a film,” each one lasting between about fifteen minutes and two hours. The women then described what they were doing during each episode and chose from a list of twelve adjectives (happy, frustrated, enjoying myself, annoyed, and so on) to characterize their emotions during that time.
When the researchers crunched the numbers, they found a “consistent and strong bimodal pattern”—twin peaks—during the day. The women’s positive affect climbed in the morning hours until it reached an “optimal emotional point” around midday. Then their good mood quickly plummeted and stayed low throughout the afternoon only to rise again in the early evening.
Here, for example, are charts for three positive emotions—happy, warm, and enjoying myself. (The vertical axis represents the participants’ measure of their mood, with higher numbers being more positive and lower numbers less positive. The horizontal axis shows the time of day, from 7 a.m. to 9 p.m.)
The three charts are obviously not identical, but they all share the same essential shape. What’s more, that shape—and the cycle of the day it represents—looks a lot like the one on page 10. An early spike, a big drop, and a subsequent recovery.
On a matter as elusive as human emotion, no study or methodology is definitive. This DRM looked only at women. In addition, what and when can be difficult to untangle. One reason “enjoying myself” is high at noon and low at 5 p.m. is that we tend to dig socializing (which people do around lunchtime) and detest battling traffic (which people often do in the early evening). Yet the pattern is so regular, and has been replicated so many times, that it’s difficult to ignore.
So far I’ve described only what DRM researchers found about positive affect. The ups and downs of negative emotions—feeling frustrated, worried, or hassled—were not as pronounced, but they typically showed a reverse pattern, rising in the afternoon and sinking as the day drew to a close. But when the researchers combined the two emotions, the effect was especially stark. The following graph depicts what you might think of as “net good mood.” It takes the hourly ratings for happiness and subtracts the ratings for frustration.
Once again, a peak, a trough, and a rebound.
Moods are an internal state, but they have an external impact. Try as we might to conceal our emotions, they inevitably leak—and that shapes how others respond to our words and actions.
Which leads us inexorably to canned soup.
If you’ve ever prepared a bowl of cream of tomato soup for lunch, Doug Conant might be the reason why. From 2001 to 2011, Conant was the CEO of Campbell Soup Company, the iconic brand with those iconic cans. During his tenure, Conant helped to revitalize the company and return it to steady growth. Like all CEOs, Conant juggled multiple duties. But one he handled with particular calm and aplomb is the rite of corporate life known as the quarterly earnings call.
Every three months, Conant and two or three lieutenants (usually the company’s chief financial officer, controller, and head of investor relations) would walk into a boardroom in Campbell’s Camden, New Jersey, headquarters. Each person would take a seat along one of the sides of a long rectangular table. At the center of the table sat a speakerphone, the staging ground for a one-hour conference call. At the other end of the speakerphone were one hundred or so investors, journalists, and, most important, stock analysts, whose job is to assess a company’s strengths and weaknesses. In the first half hour, Conant would report on Campbell’s revenue, expenses, and earnings the previous quarter. In the second half hour, the executives would answer questions posed by analysts, who would probe for clues about the company’s performance.
At Campbell Soup and all public companies, the stakes are high for earnings calls. How analysts react—did the CEO’s comments leave them bullish or bearish about the company’s prospects?—can send a stock soaring or sinking. “You have to thread the needle,” Conant told me. “You have to be responsible and unbiased, and report the facts. But you also have a chance to champion the company and set the record straight.” Conant says his goal was always to “take uncertainty out of an uncertain marketplace. For me, these calls introduced a sense of rhythmic certainty into my relationships with investors.”
CEOs are human beings, of course, and therefore presumably subject to the same daily changes in mood as the rest of us. But CEOs are also a stalwart lot. They’re tough-minded and strategic. They know that millions of dollars ride on every syllable they utter in these calls, so they arrive at these encounters poised and prepared. Surely it couldn’t make any difference—to the CEO’s performance or the company’s fortunes—when these calls occur?
Three American business school professors decided to find out. In a first-of-its-kind study, they analyzed more than 26,000 earnings calls from more than 2,100 public companies over six and a half years using linguistic algorithms similar to the ones employed in the Twitter study. They examined whether the time of day influenced the emotional tenor of these critical conversations—and, as a consequence, perhaps even the price of the company’s stock.
Calls held first thing in the morning turned out to be reasonably upbeat and positive. But as the day progressed, the “tone grew more negative and less resolute.” Around lunchtime, mood rebounded slightly, probably because call participants recharged their mental and emotional batteries, the professors conjectured. But in the afternoon, negativity deepened again, with mood recovering only after the market’s closing bell. Moreover, this pattern held “even after controlling for factors such as industry norms, financial distress, growth opportunities, and the news that companies were reporting.” In other words, even when the researchers factored in economic news (a slowdown in China that hindered a company’s exports) or firm fundamentals (a company that reported abysmal quarterly earnings), afternoon calls “were more negative, irritable, and combative” than morning calls.
Perhaps more important, especially for investors, the time of the call and the subsequent mood it engendered influenced companies’ stock prices. Shares declined in response to negative tone—again, even after adjusting for actual good news or bad news—“leading to temporary stock mispricing for firms hosting earnings calls later in the day.”
While the share prices eventually righted themselves, these results are remarkable. As the researchers note, “call participants represent the near embodiment of the idealized homo economicus.” Both the analysts and the executives know the stakes. It’s not merely the people on the call who are listening. It’s the entire market. The wrong word, a clumsy answer, or an unconvincing response can send a stock’s price spiraling downward, imperiling the company’s prospects and the executives’ paychecks. These hardheaded businesspeople have every incentive to act rationally, and I’m sure they believe they do. But economic rationality is no match for a biological clock forged during a few million years of evolution. Even “sophisticated economic agents acting in real and highly incentivized settings are influenced by diurnal rhythms in the performance of their professional duties.”
These findings have wide implications, say the researchers. The results “are indicative of a much more pervasive phenomenon of diurnal rhythms influencing corporate communications, decision-making and performance across all employee ranks and business enterprises throughout the economy.” So stark were the results that the authors do something rare in academic papers: They offer specific, practical advice.
“[A]n important takeaway from our study for corporate executivesis that communications with investors, and probably other criticalmanagerial decisions and negotiations, should be conducted earlier in the day.”
Should the rest of us heed this counsel? (Campbell, as it happens,typically held its earnings calls in the morning.) Our moods cycle in a regular pattern—and, almost invisibly, that affects how corporate executives do their job. So should those of us who haven’t ascended to the C-suite also frontload our days and tackle our important work in the morning?
The answer is yes. And no.--此文字指其他 kindle_edition 版本。
- ASIN : B072Q985YX
- 出版社 : Riverhead Books; 第 Reprint 版 (2018年1月9日)
- 出版日期 : 2018年1月9日
- 语言 : 英语
- 文件大小 : 11138 KB
- 标准语音朗读 : 已启用
- X-Ray : 已启用
- 生词提示功能 : 已启用
- 纸书页数 : 268页
- 亚马逊热销商品排名: 商品里排第53,255名Kindle商店 (查看Kindle商店商品销售排行榜)
- 商品里排第19名Work Life Balance & Stress（平衡与压力）
- 商品里排第42名Motivation & Self-Improvement（自我激励）
- 商品里排第102名Psychology & Counseling（心理问题与咨询）
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The perfect time to make decisions, the perfect decision to make regarding timing. When to accept a job offer, and when to leave a job. When to present to a client, and when to take on a new action that needs to become a habit.
And the list goes on.
Author Daniel Pink has collected a startling array of findings from a wide variety of credible sources. All shed light on one of life’s most vexing problems: when is the right time?
It was Miles Davis who said that timing isn’t the main thing, it’s the only thing!
Consider just some of the observations and insights Pink shares.
In an article in the respected magazine, Science, researchers reported on their findings across 500 million tweets sent by 2.4 million users in 84 countries posted over two years. They found that positive emotions such as feeling engaged and hopeful, were generally higher in the morning, plummeted in the afternoon, and climbed up again in the early evening. Neither the day of the week, nor the weekend made any difference.
Across continents and time zones, the same daily patterns occur: a peak, a trough, and a rebound. It also appears that nearly all living things have biological clocks that affect their moods and energy.
This field of study, called chronobiology, shouldn’t be only of interest to some, because timing can even affect the share price of a company.
A study of over 26k earnings reports from more than 2,100 public companies over 6 1/2 years, revealed price-altering results. Reports presented first thing in the morning were perceived as more generally upbeat and positive. In the afternoon when negativity deepened again, responses to reports “were more negative, irritable, and combative” than reports in the morning.
So aside from shareholder’s meetings, should business people tackle their most important work in the morning? The answer is yes, and no. Here’s why.
Our cognitive abilities are not constant over the course of a day. But, not only do they fluctuate, they are dependent on the nature of the task.
Generally, our mental alertness and energy levels climb in the morning, reaching their peak about midday, then plummet during the afternoons, and recover in the late afternoon. Again, that is not true for all people.
Each of us has a “chronotype”—a personal pattern of circadian rhythms that influence our physiology and psychology.
In the past we have divided people into two broad classes – larks (an early morning bird,) and owls (a night bird.) However, there is a third bird, according to the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. While the number of extreme owls outnumbers the extreme larks, 60-80% of us are the “third bird”, not too owlish and not too larkish.
Why does it matter? Consider being more of an owl and writing your matric math exam in the morning. You will do worse than you would have done later in the day. Not because you know less, but because mornings are not when you best show how much you know.
I mention math particularly because not all brain work is the same. Some problems require analytical prowess, while others require insight. The insight problems are more likely to be solved when birds are not at their peak – mornings for owls and late afternoons for larks.
The “Big Five” psychological traits – (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism,) are also differently affected for larks, the third bird, and owls.
While there sound tests to assess your chronotype quite easily, Pink offers a simple test and a variety of tips throughout the book in chapters titled “Time Hacker’s Handbook.”
A ‘quick and dirty’ way to find your avian type is to do the following computation for your sleep pattern. On “free days” when you don’t have to be awake at specific times, take your bed-time and your wake-up time, and find the mid-point. Those of us whose mid-point is before 3 a.m. are larks, midpoints after 6 a.m. are owls, and everyone between are “third birds”.
Everyone experiences the day in three stages, peak, trough, and rebound, but one in four people, the owls, experience the day in reverse order.
As a manager you are best served by holding a brainstorming meeting in the late afternoon which will suit most people, and an analytical meeting in the morning.
The best performing business people need to be aware of their chronotype just as do the best performing athletes. And work around it as much as possible.
Based on good science, we know more about what is required for peak performance today, than we did in the past. For example, we now know lunch is the most important meal of the day, not breakfast. We know that taking an afternoon nap is not a sign of shameful indolence, or best reserved for 5-year olds, but a very smart practice for corporate athletes.
If afternoons are the ‘Bermuda Triangles’ of our days, it would be wise to encourage taking a “perfect nap” if it will boost your individual productivity and corporate performance. In the UK, sleep-related car accidents peak twice every day 2 p.m. and 6 a.m. So, we may assume do poor decisions.
There are many types of “restorative breaks”, not completely dissimilar to the afternoon nap. Some only take minutes, but have dropped death rates in hospitals by 18%. They include physically taking a step back from the work you are doing, and refocusing on the task to be accomplished.
‘When’ does matter. Studies have shown that “if you happen to appear before a parole board just before a break rather than just after one, you’ll likely spend a few more years in jail—not because of the facts of the case but because of the time of day,” Pink reports.
There is no single answer to what breaks look like, but science does offer five guiding principles.
1. Something beats nothing
2. Moving beats stationary
3. Social beats solo
4. Outside beats inside
5. Fully detached beats semi-detached
So, the cinematic supervillain Gordon Gekko was wrong on many counts when he said, “Lunch is for wimps.” About 62% of American office workers eat lunch at their desks, alone each day. This is simply a recipe for poor performance, not a sign of commitment or a great work ethic.
And the perfect nap? It’s a coffee followed by a 20-minute sleep, because caffeine takes 25 minutes to kick in, and you will wake refreshed. Pink calls this the ‘napacinno’.
There are so many more insights into how the time of day, week or year affects our working prowess, that it is not surprising that this book has become a best-seller.
Readability Light ---+- Serious
Insights High +---- Low
Practical High -+--- Low
*Ian Mann of Gateways consults internationally on leadership and strategy and is the author of the recently released ‘Executive Update.
“The product of writing— this book— contains more answers than questions. But the process of writing is the opposite. Writing is an act of discovering what you think and what you believe. I used to believe in ignoring the waves of the day. Now I believe in surfing them. I used to believe that lunch breaks, naps, and taking walks were niceties. Now I believe they’re necessities. I used to believe that the best way to overcome a bad start at work, at school, or at home was to shake it off and move on. Now I believe the better approach is to start again or start together. I used to believe that midpoints didn’t matter— mostly because I was oblivious to their very existence. Now I believe that midpoints illustrate something fundamental about how people behave and how the world works. I used to believe in the value of happy endings. Now I believe that the power of endings rests not in their unmitigated sunniness but in their poignancy and meaning. I used to believe that synchronizing with others was merely a mechanical process. Now I believe that it requires a sense of belonging, rewards a sense of purpose, and reveals a part of our nature. I used to believe that timing was everything. Now I believe that everything is timing.”
Dan Pink begins the book like the good speech writer he was, with an interesting story and a question. The story is about Captain William Turner, who was in command of the Lusitania when German U-boats sank her and escalated World War I. We know that in the hours immediately prior to being torpedoed, Turner made several bad decisions. Pink says, “Maybe those decisions were bad because he made them in the afternoon.”
That’s his transition to the opening of the book and the idea that we can understand many things about us by understanding what scientific research is finding out about timing. Pink calls it “an emerging body of multi-faceted, multi-disciplinary research.”
Pink has divided his book on “perfect timing” into three sections. Part 1 is about the day. There are two chapters. Part 2 is about “Beginnings, endings, and in between.” There are five chapters in that section. Part 3 is two chapters on “Syncing and Thinking.” Here’s a little more detail about the contents.
Chapter one is devoted to the hidden pattern of everyday life and introduces us to chronotypes. While chronotypes result in a personal pattern of daily rhythms, they all include three stages: a peak, a trough, and a rebound.
The next chapter is about breaks and naps. It also addresses the question that Pink raised in the introduction about whether Captain Turner’s bad decisions were caused by being in the afternoon.
Part 2 is about the emotional power of beginnings and endings. There are also some crucial insights on midpoints. That’s where Pink introduces us to what he calls “The uh-oh effect.” That’s that period where you or your team are working on a project and suddenly realize that if you don’t get your act together, you won’t make your deadline. Uh-oh.
The final section of the book is devoted to syncing and thinking. There’s one chapter on syncing, the way that we work in groups. Pink says that group timing requires “someone or something above and apart from the group itself to set the pace, maintain the standards, and focus the collective mind.” He calls that “someone or something” a “boss.”
The final content chapter of the book is “Thinking in Tenses.” It’s about how we deal with the past, present, and future.
In addition to the core content of this book, Pink gives us a “Time Hacker’s Handbook.” I suspect that he does this for two reasons. It makes the book longer, pushing it up beyond the magical 250 pages that most mainline publishers want a business book to have. And, by putting the practical applications stuff in the Time Hacker’s Handbook, Pink avoids the tough writing challenge of integrating it into the basic text of the book.
In A Nutshell
When: The Scientific Secrets of Perfect is pretty much Dan Pink. The writing clips along, and you'll learn lots of interesting stuff. Pink is great at pulling together a bunch of surveys and studies and stuff and making a point. But that’s also the problem, he’s always making a point. That means that he glosses over things that don’t help him make his point. He also doesn’t spend much time talking about the complexities. In this book, one of those complexities might be how the different factors, such as diets and schedules and chronotypes interact in real life. And, as with every Dan Pink book, I always wonder what he’s left out.
If you want a quick introduction to the research around timing and our biological clocks, buy and read this book. If you want a more comprehensive or even-handed treatment of the subject, skip this book and do some of the research work yourself.